Greek Fire: One of History’s Best-Kept Military Secrets

Published January 10, 2015
Updated October 9, 2018
Published January 10, 2015
Updated October 9, 2018

Modern armies may have drones and heat-seeking missiles at their disposal, but the true shock and awe masters were dead long before America even existed.

Greek Fire

A still from the game Assassin’s Creed Revelations. Source: TV Araj

Way back in the 7th century, the Byzantines — not the Greeks — created a weapon known as “Greek fire” to protect Constantinople during the Arab siege. The Byzantine Empire was the Greek-speaking Eastern wing of the Roman Empire, founded in Byzantium and so successful in its own right that it outlived the fall of the Western Roman Empire by a thousand years.

The Byzantines had a few different names for Greek fire, like sea fire and liquid fire, and while it wasn’t the first incendiary weapon, it was an incredibly successful one. We’re still talking about it today in part because nobody knows what ingredients went into the mixture. In fact, armies that captured the liquid along with the machine that delivered it were unable to replicate either of them. The Greek fire mystery has captivated historians and scientists for centuries and may have been an inspiration for the invention of napalm and modern flamethrowers.

Ancient Depiction Of Greek Fire

Found in an illuminated manuscript, this is one of few surviving ancient depictions of Greek fire. Source: Wikimedia

Though often used as an umbrella term to describe a variety of lesser formulas, true Greek fire was a specific liquid incendiary concoction which was heated and pressurized, then delivered via siphon.

Characteristics that made it singular include its ability to burn on water and stick onto surfaces, only extinguishable with sand, vinegar, or–bizarrely–old urine. Some historians believe it could be ignited using water. Copies were created by other peoples over the centuries, but none had all these qualities. The true Byzantine formula died with the empire, but petroleum, quicklime, sulphur, and niter are just a few of the chemicals that have been suggested by modern historians as possible ingredients.

Greek Fire Used During A Naval Battle

Greek fire being used in a naval battle. Source: Reformation

The clip below, from “Ancient Discoveries,” shows a Byzantine handheld flamethrower in action. Like the machine, it is filled with liquid fire. Neither of them are using true Greek fire because that recipe is unknown, but it’s obvious that even this lesser copy is frighteningly powerful:

To show that the handheld siphon was actually a thing, not something imagined by that show’s producers, here’s an ancient depiction of its use:

Greek Fire Used In A Flamethrower

Source: Wikipedia

Hand grenades were also used in ancient times. They were filled with Greek fire and sealed so that all a soldier needed to do was throw the grenade toward the enemy to eliminate him. The hand grenades we have now are a direct descendent of these contraptions; we’ve just updated the concept by using explosives instead.

Greek Fire Grenade

These terra cotta Greek fire grenades are actually from the Byzantine Empire, between the 8th and 10th centuries BCE. Source: Ancient Resource

As with grenades, the modern world has also found a way to make its own copy of Greek fire: napalm. The word itself comes from the Greek and Latin, naphtha, and from the English, palmitic acid. Demonstrated below is the M9 flamethrower, which uses napalm-thickened gasoline as its fuel source:

Later appearing in video games like “Assassin’s Creed” and fantasy literature à la Harry Potter, Greek fire proves that no matter how high tech our world becomes, some of the best, most interesting ideas out there are also the oldest.

To learn how the actual Ancient Greeks put their military technology to use, discover the most important battles of the Greek Wars.

All That's Interesting
Your curiosity knows no bounds. Neither do we.