The Shocking Assassination Of Inejiro Asanuma

Published May 9, 2017
Updated March 2, 2019
Published May 9, 2017
Updated March 2, 2019

Japanese politician Inejiro Asanuma was assassinated by a 17-year-old on camera. Cause of death? A samurai sword through the stomach.

Inejiro Asanuma Assassination

Yasushi NagaoSeventeen-year-old Otoya Yamaguchi uses a foot-long sword to kill Japan Socialist Party leader Inejiro Asanuma on a public stage in Tokyo during a live televised debate on October 12, 1960.

When most people tune in to a political debate, they anticipate that things will quickly heat up — but not to the point where anyone dies.

But that’s exactly what happened in Tokyo on October 12, 1960, when the television cameras kept rolling as a leading politician was murdered on stage by a teenager with a samurai sword.

The shocking stabbing came at a tense time in Japan. The country was still defining itself after its defeat in World War II, and the looming elections for the House of Representatives emphasized the deep divide between the left and right.

The victim, Inejiro Asanuma, was the leader of the Japanese Socialist Party, whose support of the Chinese Communist Party and criticism of U.S.-Japanese ties were extremely controversial.

And his position was made even more delicate by the fact that he had once opposed everything he now stood for.

Inejiro Asanuma Enters Politics On The Right

Inejiro Asanuma was born in Tokyo in 1898. He was raised by his father, as his mother died in childbirth, then orphaned several years later when his father died of cancer.

It was a difficult beginning, but those who knew Asanuma said he never slowed down. He was loud and determined, but beneath a forceful exterior, he was gentle — a combination of traits that made him popular when he turned his attention to politics in his 30s.

He didn’t start out a socialist; in fact, he started about as far away on the political spectrum as it was possible to be. He became a member of what the Japanese call uyoku dantai: ultranationalist, pro-military, far-right factions.

Though political convictions vary from group to group, most uyoku dantai are united by their reverence for traditional Japanese values and their staunch opposition to Marxism and communism.

Uyoku Dantai Van

Wikimedia CommonsToday, uyoku dantai vans splashed with right-wing slogans and propaganda pictures can often be spotted at Japanese political events and protests, blasting their message over their loudspeakers.

Like most members of uyoku dantai, Asanuma supported the military regime of Hideki Tojo, 27th prime minister of Japan and general of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. Tojo is primarily known for having ordered the 1941 bombing of Pearl Harbor, provoking the U.S. into entering World War II.

In 1936, Asanuma was elected to Japan’s National Diet, where he represented right-wing interests for six years.

But in 1942, he began to have doubts. Disillusioned in the wake of military losses, most notably the Battle of Midway, he questioned his support of Japanese military aggression.

When it came time to fight once more for reelection, he found he couldn’t do it. Asanuma withdrew his candidacy for the National Diet.

Inejiro Asanuma Becomes The Face Of Japanese Socialism

Asanuma 1948

Wikimedia CommonsInejiro Asanuma in 1948.

By the time of Japan’s defeat in 1945, Asanuma had done some thinking. He was ready to reenter politics — but this time from a new angle. He was running as a socialist.

It was a dramatic, jaw-dropping pivot from the far right to the far left — and he didn’t make it quietly.

In 1959, he visited China and referred to the United States as “the shared enemy of China and Japan.” He then disembarked from the plane home wearing a suit styled after Chairman Mao Zedong — a bold fashion choice at a time when Mao’s People’s Republic of China was not recognized as legitimate in Japan.

So when Asanuma assumed the lectern in Hibiya Hall in front of 1,000 people on October 12, 1960, it was assumed that some of the crowd would have strong feelings on his candidacy.

Spectators were still shocked, though, when 17-year-old Otoya Yamaguchi rushed onto the stage with a traditional samurai sword and plunged it into the left side of the 61-year-old’s ribs:

Otoya Yamaguchi stabs Inejiro Asanuma with a foot-long sword during a televised debate.

Yamaguchi was tackled before he got in a second stab, but the damage was already done. Inejiro Asanuma died an hour later.

Still wearing his school uniform, the young ultranationalist smiled as police hauled him away.

Yamaguchi had been a member of the Great Japan Patriotic Society — an uyoku dantai not unlike the one that Inejiro Asanuma himself had once belonged to.

Yamaguchi vehemently opposed both communism and Westernization. Approximately 100 members of his organization had attended the debate and could be heard heckling Asanuma throughout his speech.

Yamaguchi’s devotion to Japanese culture was evident in his weapon of choice — a foot-long yoroidoshi sword traditionally used by samurais in the 1800s.

The Aftermath Of Asanuma’s Assassination

Inejiro Asanuma Funeral

Gamma-Keystone / Getty ImagesInejiro Asanuma’s body is carried past his friends and colleagues.

After Asanuma was pronounced dead, an estimated 15,000 left-wing protestors converged on the city’s police headquarters demanding that the police chief resign for his failure to provide adequate security.

During the resulting unrest, 60 students and 22 policemen were injured.

As the footage of the incident spread — watched by millions in the days following the attack — the political effects were felt around the world.

“Privately, officials said that while Mr. Asanuma was an avowed enemy of the United States, no responsible American wanted him removed from the political scene in this way,” The Guardian reported. “Now it is feared in Washington that Mr. Asanuma’s viewpoint, as well as his person, has been martyred in a way which may strengthen the emotional appeal of his views.”

Yamaguchi became a martyr as well. Three weeks after the assassination, he squeezed out some toothpaste in his juvenile detention cell. He mixed it with water and wrote a tribute to the samurai Kusunoki Masashige: “Seven lives for my country. Long live His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor!”

Otoya Yamaguchi And Murder Weapon

Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty ImagesOtoya Yamaguchi and the blood-stained knife he used to assassinate politician Inejiro Asanuma, Oct. 17 1960.

He then used his bedsheets to commit suicide.

His violent act, however, lived on. Along with the video of the attack, the above photo was widely distributed. It captures the moment just after Yamaguchi stabbed Inejiro Asanuma as Yamaguchi prepares to strike again.

The image was taken by Yasushi Nagao, who, after instinctively changing the focus from 10 to 15 feet as Yamaguchi rushed the stage, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for photography in 1961.

After this look at the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma, check out the four strangest presidential assassination attempts in U.S. history. Then, discover the story of R. Budd Dwyer, the American politician who killed himself while cameras were rolling.