In 1921, Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Hermann Rorschach wrote Psychodiagnostik, which would become the basis for his inkblot test, a test designed to reveal the underlying personality of an individual based upon what feelings and images each inkblot evokes in the viewer.
After working with multiple inkblots, Rorschach selected 10 for the test. When Rorschach died the following year, psychologists Samuel Beck and Bruno Klopfer modified his test scoring system. John Exner further standardized the test. Rorschach intended for the test to be used for diagnosing schizophrenia, but psychologists have since used the test to determine personality types.
Hermann Rorschach was born in Zurich on November 8, 1884. As a child, he enjoyed the arts and making inkblot pictures, which earned him the nickname “Klecks” or “inkblot.” In college at the University of Zurich he studied psychiatry and psychoanalysis, which led him down a path of using inkblots as a diagnostic tool. Fascinated by people seeing different things in inkblots, Rorschach began showing them to children to analyze their responses, ultimately building the basis for his test.
There are 10 inkblots. Five are black ink on white, two are black and red ink on white, and three are multicolored. The psychologist shows a patient each inkblot and asks, “What might this be?” The patient is given time to move the picture and study it. The psychologist writes down everything the patient says while he or she studies the inkblot. The session is timed and the psychologist later uses the time as part of a mathematical equation to summarize the data. The test remains controversial in some circles because of its ambiguity and subjectivity.
The 10 inkblots are presented below along with their common responses. How do you compare?
This first image is frequently interpreted as a bat, butterfly or moth. It can be a good indicator of how the subject approaches a new task, but it isn’t a stressful card, as there are many popular responses.
The red spots in this inkblot are often interpreted as blood and are the most definable features. This card can trigger sexual responses as well. Many people see two humans in this one, though it could just as easily be two elephants dancing the Kid and Play.
This card is normally interpreted to be two humans engaged in some kind of interaction. It can speak to the individual’s social interactions and comfort in them.
This inkblot is known for its darkness and size, and can be seen as imposing or frightening for patients suffering from depression. It’s often described as an animal hide, a skin or a rug. It may explore attitudes toward males and is therefore described as “The Father Card.”
Plate five is usually an easy card for subjects to discuss, particularly in comparison with the prior inkblots. It is commonly seen as a bat, moth or butterfly.