Exploring photographer Roman Vishniac’s archives of Jewish life before the Holocaust is to contemplate just how quickly politics and propaganda can transform—or eviscerate—an entire culture.
In 1935, Vishniac began to photo-document impoverished Jewish communities in order to secure aid for them through the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. There are about 9,000 photo negatives in Vishniac’s archive, but only 350 of them were printed in the span of his lifetime.
Warsaw Boy in front of kindling in a basement dwelling: 1935–38. Source: Art News
12 of 22
Vishniac’s own daughter Mara in front of an election poster for Hindenburg and Hitler that says, “The Marshal and the Corporal: Fight with Us for Peace and Equal Rights,” Berlin: 1933. Source: Art News
13 of 22
Boy standing atop a giant pile of rubble, Berlin: 1947. Source: Art News
14 of 22
Young Zionists building a school and foundry while learning construction techniques, The Netherlands: 1939. Source: Art News
15 of 22
Boys gathered in admiration of a motorcycle, Brandenburg: early 1930s. Source: Art News
16 of 22
Berlin street photography; notice the swastika flag on the storefront: 1935-36. Source: Art Blart
17 of 22
David Eckstein, seven years old, and his elementary school classmates in heder: 1935-38. Source: Art Blart
18 of 22
A worker in a Jewish soup kitchen: mid to late 1930s. Source: Art Blart
What Jewish Life Looked Like In Europe Before The Holocaust
Vishniac was a Russian-born Jew, who himself spent a number of weeks in a French internment camp, but was later released and moved to New York City with his family. After the war, he continued to photograph the less fortunate within Jewish communities.
Now, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and International Center for Photography have launched an online database for all of Vishniac’s photos to both highlight his exhaustive body of work and help identify his subjects in the hope that the photos can be placed into the hands of the families. Many of the photos in the archive are uncategorized and undated, and there are very few names listed – but a number of identifications have already been made.
Photos in this gallery highlight all of Vishniac’s work and remind us of the culture lost to the wills of the more powerful.
An All That’s Interesting writer since 2013, Erin Kelly focuses on historic places, natural wonders, environmental issues, and the world of science. Her work has also been featured in Smithsonian and she’s designed several published book covers in her career as a graphic artist.