This Day In History, July 30th

What happened on this day in history: Baghdad is founded as the capital of the Abbasid dynasty, Jimmy Hoffa disappears in suburban Detroit, and more.

762 C.E.: Baghdad Is Founded

The city of Baghdad is founded by Abbasid caliph al-Mansur as the capital of the Abbasid dynasty. For hundreds of years, the intricately designed city reigned as one of the most important in the region — until the Mongols conquered it in the 13th century. Today, Baghdad is the capital of Iraq.

1811: Miguel Hidalgo Is Executed

Today In History July 30

Public DomainMiguel Hidalgo portrayed as the father of Mexico in a 1905 painting.

Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is executed by firing squad in Chihuahua, Mexico, at the age of 58. Considered the “Father of Mexican Independence,” Hidalgo encouraged Mexicans to resist Spanish rule. He was captured by Spanish forces in January 1811, found guilty of treason, and sentenced to death.

1818: Emily Brontë Is Born

Emily Brontë is born in Yorkshire, England. A writer, Brontë produced just one novel in her life, Wuthering Heights (1847). But her haunting tale of love and revenge on the English moors is considered a masterpiece today.

1898: Otto von Bismarck Dies

Otto von Bismarck, a Prussian-born statesman and the first chancellor of the German Empire, dies a the age of 83. Bismarck is one of the most influential figures in German history. As a statesman, Bismarck oversaw the unification of Germany and gained a reputation in Europe as a master diplomat and peacemaker. Under his leadership, modern Germany began to take shape.

1975: Jimmy Hoffa Disappears

Jimmy Hoffa

Bettmann/Getty ImagesJimmy Hoffa bolstered the power of unions before he mysteriously disappeared, possibly after being abducted and murdered by the mob.

Jimmy Hoffa vanishes while in Bloomfield Township, Michigan. The president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Hoffa expanded the power of unions while rubbing shoulders with organized crime. Hoffa disappeared at the age of 62 and has never been found, with some attributing his disappearance and possible murder to the mafia.