The Incredible True Story Of The World War 1 Christmas Truce

Published October 17, 2022
Updated March 12, 2024

During the Christmas Truce of 1914, British and German soldiers sang carols, exchanged gifts, and supposedly even played a soccer game.

Christmas Truce Of 1914

Daily Mirror/Mirrorpix/Mirrorpix/Getty ImagesBritish officers from Northumberland Hussars meet their German counterparts in No Man’s Land of the Bridoux-Rouge Banc Sector of the Western Front during the World War I Christmas Truce of 1914.

In the midst of the unrelenting violence of World War I, a cease-fire suddenly swept across vast swathes of the Western front in December of 1914. Massive amounts of life had already been extinguished in the war’s opening months, but there was one event that halted the brutality and bloodshed: the famous World War I Christmas Truce of 1914.

It was the first Christmas of the war. It was a day for peace – if only fleeting.

On the night before Christmas, Captain Arthur O’Sullivan of the British army’s Royal Irish Rifles was stationed in Rue du Bois, France. He heard a German accent float from across the barracks. It said, “Do not shoot after 12 o’clock and we will not do so either.” Then, “If you English come out and talk to us, we won’t fire.”

One Irish rifleman ventured out of his trench to test the invitation. After arriving back safely with a German cigar as a gift, others made their way onto the still battlefield. No Man’s Land filled with soldiers meeting each other halfway.

And so began the unofficial Christmas Truce of 1914.

The Christmas Truce Of 1914: A Welcome Respite To Weary Soldiers

The Christmas Truce Illustration

Wikimedia CommonsAn artist’s impression of the Christmas Truce of 1914 from The Illustrated London News: “British and German Soldiers Arm-in-Arm Exchanging Headgear: A Christmas Truce between Opposing Trenches”.

By December 1914, trench warfare was in full swing and already there were some 405,000 casualties.

Earlier that month, Pope Benedict XV suggested a temporary hiatus for the holiday, but the warring countries refused to create an official cease-fire — so the soldiers took it upon themselves to lay down their arms.

The Christmas truce also provided the armies with time to collect their deceased soldiers from the fields and bury them. This gesture meant a lot in terms of respect for the dead for both sides.

World War 1 Christmas Truce

Universal History Archive/UIG/Getty ImagesPhotograph of soldiers playing football in No Man’s Land during the Christmas truce.

And so, along the front lines in France and Belgium on Christmas eve, soldiers heard carols in the distance. German troops sang “Stille Nacht, Heilige Nacht” (“Silent Night, Holy Night”) and the Allied troops chimed in – singing in alternating languages.

Cautiously, more soldiers began to join in on the celebrations. Germans held up lanterns and called to the British, assuring them in broken English that they wouldn’t shoot. Instead, they wished them a Merry Christmas. Men from both sides intermingled, shook hands, and shared cigarettes and food.

In the words of Captain Robert Miles of the King’s Shropshire Light Infantry:

We are having the most extraordinary Christmas Day imaginable. A sort of unarranged and quite unauthorized but perfectly understood and scrupulously observed truce exists between us and our friends in front. The funny thing is it only seems to exist in this part of the battle line – on our right and left we can all hear them firing away as cheerfully as ever.

Christmas Truce Of 1914
History Uncovered Podcast
Episode 14: The World War I Christmas Truce Of 1914
In the midst of the unrelenting violence of World War I, a ceasefire suddenly swept across areas of the Western front in 1914. Massive amounts of life had already been extinguished, but there was one event that halted the brutality and bloodshed.

Some even say that soccer games broke out during the truce.

Historian Alan Wakefield said, “If it happened — and there are very few collaborative accounts — there’s second, third-hand accounts of somebody hearing of a game going on somewhere.” However, if you’re keeping score, those who heard about it happening said the game ended three to two for the Germans.

Indeed, historians remain skeptical, but widespread accounts do exist, with some saying that a game broke out between British and German forces near Ypres, Belgium, while others are said to have faced off in a match near Le Tourquet, France. And though such accounts may remain unproven, the mythology of impromptu soccer matches remains an essential part of the mythology surrounding the Christmas Truce of 1914 to this day.

The Legacy Of The World War I Christmas Truce

Soldiers Play Soccer

Getty ImagesHistorians claim there are no primary sources to confirm whether or not a friendly soccer match took place during the truce, but many soldiers wrote home about a match they heard about from someone else.

Many generals and senior officers were not on board with this overall show of goodwill. In some areas, peace lasted until the first few days of 1915 without many shots fired. The military made it clear that this was not acceptable wartime behavior. Another holiday truce of this kind was never recorded.

Fighting did still occur on Christmas in some areas. Corporal Clifford Lane of H Company Hertfordshire regiment explains that upon seeing some Germans emerge from the trenches with lanterns, he was ordered to open fire.

World War I Christmas Truce Memorial

Wikimedia CommonsA cross, left in Comines-Warneton in Belgium in 1999 to celebrate the site of the Christmas Truce.

“The Germans did not reply to our fire and carried on with their celebrations.” Corporal Lane remembered. “They ignored us and were having a very fine time indeed and we continued in our wet trenches trying to make the most of it.”

He later regretted not engaging in the truce with the Germans. “It would have been a good experience,” he said.

But back in 1914, things magically aligned to allow for some holiday spirit. The soldiers involved in the Great War were either green newcomers or weathered veterans. They’d expected the fighting to be short and done by Christmas. The war wasn’t too “dirty”; the propaganda machine hadn’t churned up the seething hatred against sides.

Indeed, though attempts were made to enact holiday truces in 1915 and 1916, the war had grown so bitter by then that any cease-fires were short-lived at best.

Soldiers Pose In No Man's Land

Imperial War MuseumBritish and German soldiers pose in No Man’s Land, unoccupied territory.

Today, the Christmas Truce of 1914 is attributed to the last of the romanticized, “gentlemanly” soldiers of the era. These men confronted their enemies face to face. Military strategies may have certainly changed, but it’s comforting to know that on one frosty Christmas morning, adversaries laid down their arms. That they extended hands in a gesture of peace; however temporary it may be.

After learning about the World War I Christmas Truce of 1914, check out these weird Christmas ads from our past. Then read about the heartwarming story behind the first ever Rockefeller Center Christmas tree.

Erin Kelly
An All That's Interesting writer since 2013, Erin Kelly focuses on historic places, natural wonders, environmental issues, and the world of science. Her work has also been featured in Smithsonian and she's designed several book covers in her career as a graphic artist.
John Kuroski
John Kuroski is the editorial director of All That's Interesting. He graduated from New York University with a degree in history, earning a place in the Phi Alpha Theta honor society for history students. An editor at All That's Interesting since 2015, his areas of interest include modern history and true crime.