One year earlier, Hearst, the granddaughter of newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst, was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. Held hostage, she eventually joined the SLA in several robberies before her arrest.
Hearst was later granted a full pardon in 2001. Wikimedia Commons
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Goldie Williams makes a face after her arrest for vagrancy in Omaha, Nebraska in 1898.
The five-foot tall, 110-pound Williams reported her hometown as Chicago and her occupation as a prostitute.History Nebraska
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Laura Belle Devlin after her arrest in Newark, Ohio in 1947.
Devlin had murdered and dismembered her husband with a hacksaw, then disposed of him in their wood stove and backyard. But she didn't seem to think she had done anything wrong, and even asked the police officers who arrested her, "Can I go home now?"Bettmann/Getty Images
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Bonnie Parker, of the infamous crime duo Bonnie and Clyde, striking a pose in 1933. Ryan Stennes
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Belle Gunness, one of America's most infamous female serial killers, with her children.
Between 1884 and 1908, Gunness allegedly killed between 14 and 40 people, largely by luring Norwegian bachelors to her farm in La Porte, Indiana, by placing personal ads in Norwegian-language newspapers. Ryan Stennes
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Maud Johnson after her arrest in Clarke, Washington in 1910. She was taken into custody for obtaining money under false pretenses.Washington State Archives, Digital Archives
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Stephanie St. Clair, a racketeer who became Harlem's "Numbers Queen" in the 1920s. A rich and powerful crime boss, St. Clair went toe-to-toe with both the Mafia and corrupt NYPD officers. Ryan Stennes
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Ellen "Nellie" Kreigher, one of four people who were charged with the murder of Gertrude Mabel Heaydon in Sydney, Australia in 1923.
The previous October, Heaydon had attempted to obtain an illegal abortion at the home of a woman known as "Nurse Taylor," and died. Police later alleged that Nurse Taylor killed her at the request of her husband, Alfred. Since Kreigher had shared an apartment with Nurse Taylor, she was immediately accused of involvement — but the charges against her and the other suspects were eventually dropped.Sydney Living Museums
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Belle Starr, a Wild West outlaw, during her arrest in Arkansas in 1886 by Deputy U.S. Marshal Benjamin Tyner Hughes and Deputy U.S. Marshal Charles Barnhill.
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Blanche Barrow, the sister-in-law of Clyde Barrow (of Bonnie and Clyde infamy) during her arrest in 1933.
A reluctant criminal, Blanche followed her husband, Buck Barrow, who accompanied Bonnie and Clyde on their crime spree in the early 1930s. Ryan Stennes
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Hazel McGuinness after her arrest in Sydney, Australia, in 1929, for cocaine possession.
Hazel was arrested alongside her mother, Ada. But detectives later blamed Ada — and not Hazel — for their crimes. Ada, they said, was "the most evil woman in Sydney" who had raised her daughter in an "atmosphere of immorality and dope."Sydney Living Museums
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Christine and Léa Papin, French sisters and domestic servants who were convicted in 1933 for the murders of their employer's wife and daughter in Le Mans. Ryan Stennes
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Sixteen-year-old Brenda Ann Spencer was arrested in 1979 for firing over 30 rounds into Grover Cleveland Elementary School in San Diego, California.
When asked why she did it, the teenager responded: "I don’t like Mondays. This livens up the day."JSK Colorizations
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Valerie Lowe after her arrest in New South Wales, Australia, in 1922.
Lowe was arrested for breaking into an army warehouse and stealing boots and overcoats. She and her partner-in-crime, Joseph Messenger, were also later charged with breaking into a home, stealing a saddle and bridle from Rosebery Racecourse, and stealing jewelry and money. Sydney Living Museums
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Despite being married, Los Angeles woman Dolly Oesterreich had a secret lover whom she kept hidden in her attic for years — until he suddenly burst out in 1922 to shoot her husband dead. Frédéric Duriez
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Caril Ann Fugate, the youngest female ever tried for first-degree murder in the United States. At the age of 14, she accompanied spree killer Charles Starkweather on his crime spree in 1958, though her role in the murders remains disputed to this day. She was initially sentenced to life in prison but was ultimately paroled 17 years into her sentence for good behavior.Ryan Stennes
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A mugshot of Alice Fisher, taken in New South Wales, Australia, in 1919.
At the time this photo was taken, Fisher was serving two consecutive sentences of four months for larceny.Sydney Living Museums
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Martha Jane Cannary, known as Calamity Jane, a Wild West icon who rubbed shoulders with legends like Wild Bill Hickok. Though she had a rough start to life and was often forced to take any available work — which allegedly included prostitution — she eventually built up a reputation as a respected sharpshooter and a compassionate woman who was willing to help anyone who was in a vulnerable position.Wikimedia Commons
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Mary Flora Bell, one of the youngest female killers of all time, was just 10 years old when she murdered a young boy in England in 1968. Shortly after turning 11, she killed another young boy with the help of a female friend. She was convicted of the crimes later the same year, but was eventually released in 1980.Ryan Stennes
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Nannie Doss, an American serial killer called the "Giggling Granny." Doss killed four husbands, two children, two sisters, her mother, two grandsons, and a mother-in-law between the 1920s and the 1950s.Ryan Stennes
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Pearl Hart, a Wild West outlaw. In 1899, she and a man who called himself "Joe Boot" robbed a stagecoach in Arizona. When one of the robbery victims resisted, Hart — who was dressed as a man — deepened her voice and said: "Cough up, partner, or I'll plug you."Ryan Stennes
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Cheryl Crane, the daughter of actress Lana Turner. In 1958, at the age of 14, she stabbed her mother's mobster boyfriend, Johnny Stompanato, to death.
Stompanato's murder was ruled a "justifiable homicide," however, as a jury found that Crane had been protecting her mother from Stompanato's abuse.Ryan Stennes
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Martha Beck, one-half of a murderous couple dubbed "The Lonely Hearts Killers." Between 1947 and 1949, she and her partner Raymond Fernandez killed as many as 20 people, many of whom had either placed or answered personal ads. Ryan Stennes
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Annie Oakley, circa 1900. Though the famous female sharpshooter was never actually arrested and wasn't truly a "criminal," Chicago papers reported in 1903 that she'd been jailed for stealing men's pants to pay for her cocaine addiction. In reality, a burlesque dancer in Chicago had committed the crime, and given Annie Oakley's name as her own. Oakley later won or settled over 50 lawsuits against various papers across the country that had reprinted the story.History in Color
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In the 1970s and 1980s, English serial killer Rosemary West and her husband, Fred, tortured and murdered at least 10 young women and children together. Ryan Stennes
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Myra Hindley was once considered the "most evil woman in Britain." Between 1963 and 1965, she and her lover Ian Brady murdered five children. Wikimedia Commons
27 Vintage Photos Of Woman Criminals Brought To Life In Stunning Color
In black and white, photos of female criminals can seem like a distant vestige of an earlier age. But in color, the same images pop to life.
Imbued with shade and depth, photos of woman criminals from the past two centuries suddenly tell a different story. In the eyes of the women pictured above, you'll see defiance, shame, pride, indifference, and fear.
Some of them were drawn to criminal activity by their family members or lovers. Yet many others sought out a life of crime on their own.
In the gallery above, discover some striking photos of female criminals from the 19th and 20th centuries in striking color. And, below, read about some of the heinous crimes they committed before they were caught.
Women Who Were Thieves And Bandits
Many of the woman criminals in the gallery above were arrested for the same offense — robbery. But they often stole to satisfy different needs.
Take Pearl Hart, a 19th-century stagecoach robber. On May 30, 1899, she and her lover Joe Boot held up a stagecoach in Arizona because they needed money. When one of the passengers resisted, Hart — dressed as a man — deepened her voice and threatened: "Cough up, partner, or I'll plug you."
Though Hart and Boot were quickly captured, Hart soon became famous. According to the New York Post, Americans were delighted and fascinated by the idea of a female bandit who dressed as a man.
Public DomainPearl Hart at Yuma Territorial Prison. In the gallery above, you can see a photo of Hart in color.
Or, take Clara Randall or Valerie Lowe of New South Wales, Australia. In the 1920s, Randall told police that someone had broken into her apartment and stolen her jewelry. In fact, Randall had pawned the jewelry on her own for cash — and had hoped to make more money off the fake theft.
And Lowe, with her partner-in-crime Joseph Messenger, stole frequently in the 1920s, targeting people's homes and even the Rosebery Racecourse, from which she and Messenger stole a bridle and saddle.
In the gallery above, colorized photos of Randall and Lowe capture their criminal mugshots in striking, colorful detail. Randall, in a green dress and hat, appears to be tired and even a little bored in her picture. Lowe, on the other hand, simmers with quiet defiance in her gingham dress.
But these women — and many of the others above — merely stole. Others committed gruesome murders, and some of them killed multiple victims.
Female Killers Throughout History
Wikimedia CommonsCheryl Crane and her mother, the superstar actress Lana Turner.
Just like the thieves featured in the gallery above, the killers turned to murder for several different reasons. Some made the fateful decision in order to protect other people — like 14-year-old Cheryl Crane.
On April 4, 1958, Crane, the daughter of actress Lana Turner, stabbed her mother's mobster boyfriend Johnny Stompanato to death. Though some claimed that Turner had killed Stompanato, then forced her daughter to take the blame, a jury disagreed. They found that Crane had killed Stompanato to protect her mother's life, and ruled his death a justifiable homicide.
But other women became killers for devious reasons. Belle Gunness, for example, killed as many as 40 people between 1884 and 1908. After two of her husbands died young — and Gunness collected hefty life insurance policies — she set up a murderous scam from her farm in La Porte, Indiana.
Over the years, she put personal ads in Norwegian-language newspapers, inviting prospective suitors to La Porte. Though many men answered her ads, few of them were ever seen again. Gunness herself disappeared after a mysterious fire in 1908, and investigators subsequently found several dismembered bodies buried in burlap sacks across her Indiana farm.
Bettmann/Getty ImagesCaril Ann Fugate, pictured with spree killer Charles Starkweather before they went on a murder spree.
Though Gunness operated alone, many of the female killers in the gallery above were one-half of a crime duo. Bonnie Parker, of Bonnie and Clyde infamy, is one example of that. Other women who killed alongside their partners include Rosemary West, Caril Ann Fugate, and Martha Beck.
Often, women who worked alongside male serial killers committed especially gruesome crimes. West and her husband Fred, for example, tortured and murdered at least 10 young women and children. Beck and her partner, Raymond Fernandez, killed up to 20 people. And Fugate allegedly assisted spree killer Charles Starkweather with his brutal crimes.
All in all, the women mentioned above have a wide variety of backgrounds and crimes. Some were robbers, some were killers, and some were Wild West outlaws. But all of their photos come to life with a dash of color.
In the gallery above, peruse 27 striking colorized photos of woman criminals from the last two centuries. Study their clothing, their countenance, and the look in their eyes. Imbued with color, these images tell fascinating and unsettling stories of the women and the crimes they committed.
A staff writer for All That's Interesting, Kaleena Fraga has also had her work featured in The Washington Post and Gastro Obscura, and she published a book on the Seattle food scene for the Eat Like A Local series. She graduated from Oberlin College, where she earned a double degree in American History and French.